Class Notes

A month after Lexington and Concord, the Colonial leaders met for the Second Continental Congress in May, 1775. They had two conflicting goals at this meeting. It was a year before we would declare our Independence from England. The first goal was to convince the Crown that we were still loyal and wanted peace after killing their soldiers. The second goal was to raise an army to fight against the King for our rights. And you think our congress is confused.

Class Notes

In the 1960 election, JFK turned one of his biggest obstacles into an asset. Kennedy was not the first Catholic to run for the presidency, but was the first to win. Even though Catholics were the largest denomination in America, Americans still held reservations about the influence of the Pope. Kennedy turned his religion into a referendum on religious freedom and tolerance. He also gave a speech where he said, as to matters of the state, he would never bow to pressure from the Pope. He knew he would lose some southern voters, but figured correctly that he would pick votes up among northern blue-collar workers.

Class Notes

Elections changed forever in 1952, when the parties hired professional advertising companies.  TV was still new, and few had them, but that did not stop Republicans from running the first TV ads.  Democrats accused Republicans of cheapening the election by selling themselves the same way they could sell soap or toothpaste.  However, advertising worked for the GOP, they came up with a catchy slogan that sold their candidate perfectly, “I Like Ike.”

Class Notes

Being Veteran’s Day, I thought I would do a class note on the Vietnam War.  The most infamous battle of the conflict was the January 1968 Tet Offensive.  The Viet Cong hoped to show Americans that they were not winning the war and create disaffection back home.  It worked.  More than any other battle, the Tet Offensive turned the tide of support back home against the War.  What is not often remembered is that the U.S. won the Tet Offensive.  33,000 enemy soldiers were killed and their armies driven back.  What people most remember is the 1,600 Americans that lost their lives and that Saigon was under attack. 

I want to wish all the veterans a Happy Veteran’s day, especially those who fought in Vietnam and were forced to return to a nation that did not appreciate their service. 

Class Notes

After WWII, President Truman supported the principle of Containment, which meant we must stop communists everywhere.  As part of Containment, he supported the Marshall Plan and NATO.  Republicans fought back with Robert Taft’s Fortress America Plan, that stated that the U.S. should pull back and not get involved in foreign affairs.  After two World Wars this was appealing to many Americans. 

Class Notes

By the Election of 1944, Roosevelt had reached legendary status, making it difficult to run against him.  The Republicans could not take on the popular New Deal, or the War.  The one crack FDR had in his armor was his age.  The Republicans played up Thomas Dewey’s youth and referred to the FDR Administration as tired old men. The Republican strategy failed and FDR won a fourth term in office.

Public Virtue


The men who gathered in that blistering humid room in Philadelphia in 1787 to create our governing document did not represent a cross section of the American population. Unlike most Americans, they were wealthy lawyers and planters and most were extremely well-educated. Though they may not have all attended universities, they were well read in history and political philosophy. We know the major influences of men like Locke and Montesquieu upon our governing documents, but we know little today of James Harrington.


All of the founders were familiar with Harrington. His writing was the inspiration for the original South Carolina government and in many ways also on the Constitution. If we want to try to understand the thinking behind the Constitution, and make better historical arguments, it is helpful to know what inspired the men who wrote it.


Writing during the rule of Oliver Cromwell, Harrington described the fictional utopian nation of Oceana. The Commonwealth of Oceana, like all utopian novels, was meant to shed light on the author’s own government and its shortcomings. Harrington criticized Cromwell, thinly veiled as Olphaus Megaletor in the tract, and served time in the Tower for his criticism. Harrington believed that all political power should be shared by men of property and that property should be distributed amongst the middle class, a concept shared later by Thomas Jefferson. Harrington believed that these property holders should vote for senators who serve limited terms so all could take turns in governing.

Like most political philosophers of the time, Harrington saw these men as those who had a stake in society and so should hold the power. Power should also be held in a bicameral legislature, with a lesser and greater house making the laws.
The key to freedom for Harrington was that the property holding citizens had an obligation to serve in the militia. Under the Cromwell rule, the army had become a tool for tyranny. Not being property holders themselves, Cromwell’s solders did not have a stake in society and cared little for the rights of the people. They had become professional soldiers, whose only loyalty was to Cromwell.


If the property holding citizens were the militia, he believed, they would not drain the purse. More importantly, they would be the ones who ruled. If they attacked the system, they would only be attacking the system that placed them in power. In other words, a standing army can lead to tyranny, whereas an armed citizenry of stakeholders leads to democracy.


Another author every founder knew was Thomas Gordon who wrote under the name “Cato.” The original Cato was a Roman Senator who stood against Caesar and was a popular pen name for anyone representing republicanism. In his 1722 Cato Letter #65, Gordon wrote, “In attacks upon a free state, every man will fight to defend it, because every man has something to defend in it. He is in love with his condition, his ease, and property, and will venture his life rather than lose them; because with them he loses all the blessings of life. When these blessings are gone, it is madness to think that any man will spill his blood for him who took them away, and is doubtless his enemy, though he may call himself his prince. It is much more natural to wish his destruction, and help to procure it.”


Harrington understood there would always be those who tried to take advantage of the stakeholders, like Cromwell, who wanted to take power. The answer was for stakeholders to practice public virtue, the ability to look beyond themselves for the good of the state. As we see from Cato, virtuous citizens must be willing to lose their lives for the good of the state.You can see the influence of Harrington and Gordon in the creation of the Bill of Rights. They both saw a standing army as a potential for tyranny, hence, the Second Amendment. I am not trying to make an argument for or against gun control here, only to show the influences on the founders and their points of view.


What can be drawn from understanding men like Harrington is the concept of virtue. There have been so many arguments as to why we are so divided today and why there are so many issues such as random violence. I have heard blame placed on a loss of God, a growth in white supremacy, the NRA, and violent video games. Maybe what we have really lost is public virtue. Maybe what we have lost is the willingness to give our lives for what we believe in and to put public virtue before ourselves. Historically speaking, Oceana may be a fictional nation, but maybe Harrington understood something. If we could ever bring back the notion of public virtue, maybe we could attack the causes of our divide instead of always having to fix the consequences.


Dr. James Finck is an Associate Professor of History at the University of Science and Arts of Oklahoma and Chair of the Oklahoma Civil War Symposium. Follow Historically Speaking at http://www.Historicallyspeaking.blog or Facebook at @jamesWfinck.